The law, approved on Sept. 17, also creates a register of devices used in the country, Congress said in a statement posted on its website.
The legislation also prescribes penalties of between five to 10 years in prison or a fine of 40,000 to 100,000 quetzales (US$5,053 to US$12,632) for people who purchase phones of dubious origin.
Individuals selling the phones illegally can be fined between $100,000 to $250,000 quetzales (US$12,632 and $31,580) and be sentenced to between six to 10 years in prison.
Under the new law, the penalty for theft of a cellphone is a prison sentence between six to 15 years without possibility of parole.
Congress voted on the law under a “national emergency,” aiming to combat a rise in often-violent cellphone theft.
The use of cellphones in prison, by inmates or employees, also will be penalized under the new law.
More than 12,000 phones are stolen monthly in Guatemala, a country of more than 15 million people. In 2012, 142,745 mobile phones were stolen, 40% more than in 2011, according to figures from the Superintendence of Telecommunications.